Anatomy & Physiology









Thyroid Gland Symptoms and Diagnosis


Thyroid disease can result in either an underactive gland - hypothyroidism, or an overactive gland - hyperthyroidism. A person suffering from either an overactive or underactive thyroid gland may display many of these symptoms and a thyroid function test should be performed.


Hypothyroidism has been called the "unsuspected illness" because it is frequently misdiagnosed.The manifestations that characterize Hypothyroidism are the following:


  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Unintentional wait gain
  • Hypersomnia
  • Hypersensitivity to cold
  • Dry skin, coarse hair & Hair loss
  • Brain Fog & Memory problems
  • Depression
  • Face puffiness
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Constipation
  • Low basal temperature
  • Slow reflexes
  • Weak pulse
  • Sluggishness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Pain and stiffness in muscles or joints
  • Deepening, hoarse voice
  • Depression, mood swings and severe PMS
  • Thick, dry, coarse skin
  • Visual disturbances
  • Stiff neck and shoulders
  • Creviced, cracking skin on heels, elbows and knee caps
  • Enlarged thyroid gland
  • Feeling of numbness & tingling
  • Swelled face and/or feet
  • Hair loss
  • Allergies
  • Back pain
  • Blood pressure problems
  • Breast tenderness
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain
  • Digestive disturbances
  • Dizziness
  • Dry eyes and mouth
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Irritability
  • Pale skin
  • Palpitations
  • Reduced libido
  • Skin rashes
  • Sore throat


The types of complaints that characterize hyperthyroidism or an overactive gland are listed below.


  • Fast pulse , irregular heartbeat & Palpitation
  • Trembling and twitches
  • Heat intolerance
  • Hot flushes and increased sweating
  • Increased appetite or loss of appetite
  • Weight loss regardless of the volume of food intake
  • Diarrhea
  • Anxiety, panic attacks & Irritability
  • Brittle nails
  • Chest pain
  • Cramps
  • Decreased libido
  • Sore throat
  • Swelling of extremities
  • Depression and mood swings
  • Insomnia & Restlessness
  • Thin, moist skin
  • Soft, thinning hair
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle weakness
  • Enlarged thyroid gland
  • Eye complaints
  • Fatigue & lack of energy
  • Menstrual cycle disturbances
  • Infertility
  • Bowel disorders
  • Easy bruising
  • Hair Loss
  • Headaches and migraines


Both Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism are unequivocally associated with morbidity and, occasionally, mortality, and every health care professional understands the importance of timely diagnosis and therapy.

The tests to determine thyroid function are:

Blood Tests to measure thyroid hormones, such as T4, T3, and the thyrotropin (TSH)

Non-invasive 4 minute tests to detect thyroid dysfunction (high sensitivity and specificity).

For more information on Non-invasive tests and tests locations please visit


Subclinical Hypothyiroid (Power Point Presentation)

Clinical Outcomes of Treatments (Power Point Presentation)


American Thyroid Association, Thyroid Function Tests,2005

Koumourou R, Thyroid Flyer , Volume 1 No 3, July 2000



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